The Nicholson Foundation & Rutgers University Health Care Delivery Challenge

Submission Deadline

Submissions are Closed

Dates

April 22, 2015

Contact

Alicia Davis

Prizes

  • Award Recipient $50,000 for project implementation in a real clinic setting at a Rutgers affiliated health center

Winners will get to meet with potential clinic sites to pilot their winning submission in a real clinical setting in New Jersey

Grand Awardee

Copernicus

Team Members

Tom Nahass, Josh David, Brian Friel, Jonathan Haskel, Sam Schild, Jeet Patel

Copernicus Health incentivizes patients to actively engage in their chronic disease management, thereby reducing costs to the healthcare system and aligning the payer, provider, and most importantly, the patient. Learn more here.

Background

The Nicholson Foundation and Rutgers University Health Care Delivery Challenge seeks to award $50,000 in funding for the implementation of an innovative solution to improve health outcomes and/or reduce the cost of health care for vulnerable populations in New Jersey.

Social, economic, and environmental factors — such as racial discrimination, poverty, homelessness, language barriers, and lack of community and social cohesion — play a major role in the disproportionate burden of illness and premature death borne by vulnerable populations. These populations also present a significant challenge to New Jersey’s healthcare system because they have limited access to timely health care, frequently use expensive emergency department services for routine treatment, and often seek care late in the course of their illnesses, leading to inpatient admissions that could have been avoided.

Initiatives to improve health care access, enhance coordinated services in the community, and address the social determinants of health have the potential to improve the delivery of health care and reduce its costs. Ultimately, these initiatives can improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations in New Jersey.

The Nicholson Foundation and Rutgers Healthcare Delivery Innovation Competition will support the integrating theme of Rutgers University Strategic Plan to “improve the health and wellness of individuals and populations” by addressing health challenges, locally and globally. The Challenge will be an opportunity for Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences and the broader Rutgers community to help address this important objective in the University’s Plan.

During the competition, participants will establish collaborative teams to generate innovative ideas for interventions, technologies, or service models that can improve health care delivery and outcomes and reduce health care costs. Innovations should address local needs, but can also have wider applications, and must demonstrate substantial value.

Description

The Nicholson Foundation & Rutgers Healthcare Delivery Challenge is the second part of a three-part healthcare innovations competition, sponsored by The Nicholson Foundation in collaboration with Rutgers. The challenge will take place virtually over the next few months. Teams will work on proposals for a ready-to-implement service delivery or technology innovation intervention that will address improving health outcomes and/or reducing cost of health care for vulnerable populations in New Jersey. These project proposals will be judged virtually and three teams will be selected as finalists. The finalists will present their submissions to the review panel for final judging at the culminating Award Ceremony on April 22, 2015 and then one winning team will be selected to win the funding for the implementation of their proposal.

The winning team from the Challenge will receive $50,000 for use in the third part of the Competition, a Pilot Program for, planning, developing and implementing the winning concept or technology in a health care or community setting affiliated with Rutgers. The Pilot Project is an expanded, yearlong effort to determine the effectiveness and added value of the winning intervention, technology, or model in a real-world healthcare or community setting.

Innovative solutions are needed to address the challenges of delivering quality health care and improving health outcomes to vulnerable populations, while also reducing cost of health care delivery. New delivery models are being piloted every day and have the potential to be scaled up to benefit larger communities. Additionally, technology is being employed to help patients manage their care and connect with providers or even help modify behavior to encourage a healthier lifestyle.

Examples of possible project ideas:

  • Develop an intervention that improves community engagement and use of existing social capital (i.e., institutions, norms, and relationships that build social cohesion among individuals and communities) to address a pressing health issue, such as violence, behavioral health, or chronic disease management.
  • Develop an innovative technology to reduce health disparities, such as developing an app that case managers in the field could use to relay information to fellow members of the patient’s health care team.
  • Develop a payment model that addresses the high cost of health care delivery to vulnerable populations. This model should be of interest to third-party payers, and include an accompanying marketing plan

Note: All proposals must include a clearly articulated methodology and metrics that will measure success. Examples include: reduce health care costs by X %, or enhance access to specified services by X % within Y months.

Team Formation
Participants can begin to form teams both in person and through the Challenge online forum, or 'googlegroup' email list where interested participants can search for other team members, post which types of skill sets they are looking for as part of the team, and get to know other participants. Participants can pre-select their teams as long as they meet the eligibility requirements stated below.

Eligibility
All students, employees, and staff of Rutgers University are encouraged to participate in the Challenge. Each team must include at least one representative from the broader Rutgers community, and at least one from the Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences community. Each team must have at least 3 members but no more than 6 members. Teams are welcome to invite a community-based partner that is unaffiliated with Rutgers, (e.g., hospitals, clinics, payers) on their team.

Timeline

  • Challenge Launch Date: January 15, 2015
  • Informational Webinar: February 25, 2015, 12-1 PM ET / March 4, 2015, 5-6 PM ET
  • Challenge Deadline: April 3, 2015
  • Judging Period: April 10 - April 17, 2015
  • Announcement of Winner at Live Event: April 22, 2015

Agenda

Award Ceremony - April 22, 2015
5:00 - 6:00 PM - Registration, Dinner and Poster Session
6:00 - 6:10 PM - Opening remarks - Christopher Molloy, PhD, RPh; Senior Vice President, Research and Economic Development
6:10 - 6:25 PM - Team 1 Presentation and Q&A
6:25 - 6:40 PM - Team 2 Presentation and Q&A
6:40 - 6:55 PM - Team 3 Presentation and Q&A
6:55 - 7:25 PM - Judge Deliberation
7:25 - 7:30 PM - Winner announcement & Closing Remarks
7:30 - 8:00 PM - Networking and Photo Opp/Interviews

Review Panel

    • Mike Wiley
    • Vice President - Foundation Venture Capital Group
    • Mark Robson
    • Dean - Rutgers Agricultural and Urban Programs
    • Denise Rodgers
    • Vice Chancellor for Interprofessional Programs - Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences
    • Wen Dombrowski
    • Aging, Healthcare, & Technology Advisor - Resonate Health
    • Frank Sonnenberg
    • Medical Director Clinical Information Systems - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
    • Eric Jahn
    • Senior Associate Dean For Community Health - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
    • Sabrina Chase
    • Assistant Professor and Director - Joint Urban Systems Ph.D. Program in Urban Health
    • Jasmine Cordero
    • Managing Director - Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED), Rutgers Business School
    • Gary Minkoff
    • Instructor of Professional Practice - Rutgers Business School, Department of Management & Global Business

Evaluation Criteria

  • Creativity: uniqueness and innovation in approach to improving health outcomes and/or reducing costs.
  • Impact: Ability of the intervention to improve health outcomes of vulnerable populations and reduce costs within a year’s time.
  • Feasibility of Implementation: Intervention considers provider and clinic workflow and describes a realistic path to an efficient implementation.
  • Sustainability: The potential for sustainability and scalability of the intervention.

*Extra consideration will be given to submissions who identify a Rutgers affiliated clinic as a potential site for implementation and provide a letter of intent or interest from that site. A faculty adviser also needs to be identified to advise the team on implementation upon winning.

Submission Requirements

  • 5 page proposal detailing the proposed model/intervention. Must include the following items, separated into sections with clear headings. Proposals should be formatted with 12 pt font (Arial or Times New Roman) with standard one inch margins and single spacing.
    • Background on problem
    • Description of the delivery model/intervention and settings it can be implemented in
    • Timeline of implementation/work plan – Identify activities/milestones and dates
    • Metrics
    • Staffing
    • Budget
    • Potential cost savings
    • Impact on vulnerable populations
    • Sustainability
  • 10 slide Powerpoint summarizing the intervention, budget, timeline of implementation plan, team member experience, and metrics.
  • Letter of intent or interest from a Rutgers affiliated potential clinic site for piloting
  • If submitting an app or technology

  • A video demo of the app or technology (5 min max)

Partners

The Nicholson Foundation

The Nicholson Foundation works to address the complex needs of vulnerable populations in New Jersey’s urban areas by encouraging the transformation of health and human services delivery systems to improve their quality and reduce their cost. Our approach emphasizes partnerships and performance-based grant making; our goals are systems reform and the sustainability of those reforms.

Rutgers University

Established in 1766, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is America’s eighth oldest institution of higher learning and one of the nation’s premier public research universities. The university serves more than 65,000 students on campuses, centers, institutes and other locations throughout the state. Rutgers’ recent integration with most of the former University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) created Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS), an entirely new academic entity at the University. In the 2014 “Strategic Plan for a New Rutgers,” Improving the Health and Wellness of Individuals and Populations was identified as an integrating theme for the University’s mission and strategy. Rutgers is now poised to build on its success in addressing a wide array of health challenges, locally and globally. Through its broad reach and interdisciplinary work, it has the resources to support initiatives to maintain and manage wellness, while moving beyond the case-by-case treatment of the individual to address challenges facing populations both in our own communities and in nations around the globe.

Media Collateral

The Nicholson Foundation and Rutgers Health Care Delivery Challenge Webinar - February 25, 2015

Venue

Trayes Hall (Douglass Student Center
100 George Street
New Brunswick, NJ 08901

Terms & Conditions

OFFICIAL RULES:

PLEASE READ THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY PRIOR TO ENTRY. OPEN ONLY TO LEGAL US RESIDENTS AGES 13 AND OLDER. VOID WHERE PROHIBITED BY LAW.

THE SPONSORS: The Sponsors of this Challenge are The Nicholson Foundation, 744 Broad Street, 26th Floor, Newark, NJ 07102-3802 and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 3 Rutgers Plaza, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559 (“Sponsors”)

ADMINISTRATOR: The administrator of the Challenge is Health 2.0, LLC, 350 Townsend Street #403, San Francisco, CA 94107 ("Administrator")
By entering The Nicholson Foundation & Rutgers Healthcare Innovation Competition, you agree that your participation will be governed by, and you shall abide by, all of the following terms and conditions (the “Terms and Conditions”) outlined herein below:

1. Mission:
The goal of The Nicholson Foundation & Rutgers Healthcare Innovation Competition is to support the formation of new ideas and projects that improve, and/or reduce the cost of, healthcare for vulnerable populations in New Jersey. Competition entrants are invited to submit a project proposal that would improve/ benefit healthcare outcomes and/or reduce the costs for New Jersey’s underserved.

2. Eligibility:
The Competition is open to faculty, staff and students of Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey (“Rutgers University”) and its affiliates. Each team must include at least one representative from the broader Rutgers community, and at least one from the Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences community. Each team must have at least 3 members but no more than 6 members. Eligible teams are welcome to invite a community-based partner that is unaffiliated with Rutgers, (e.g., hospitals, clinics, payers) on their team. However, the project team must be led by a Rutgers employee or student.

3. Team Composition:
Entries must be submitted by a group of 3-6 individuals (each a “Team”). Each member of the Team must satisfy the eligibility requirements set forth in Paragraph 2 above. Each Team must designate a single member of the Team who will serve as the Team’s sole representative for communications and all other purposes in connection with the Competition (the “Team Leader”).

4. Registration Period
The registration period for the Competition begins at 12:00 a.m. EDT on January 15, 2015 and ends at 11:59 p.m. EDT on Friday, April 3, 2015.
Registration and participation are FREE. Register Here

5. Entry Period:
The entry period for submissions of proposals and concepts for the Competition begins at 12:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on Thursday, January 15, 2015 and ends at 11:59 p.m. EDT on Friday, April 3, 2015(the “Entry Period”). Upon arrival at the event, an official final submission form will be made available and must be received before the deadline.

6. Competition Guidelines:

Eligible individuals and entities interested in entering the Challenge may submit an Entry during the Entry Period through the Challenge website located at www.health2challenge.org (the “Challenge Website” ). The Sponsor and the Administrator reserve the right, in addition to those other rights reserved herein, to modify any dates or deadlines set forth in these Rules or otherwise governing the Challenge.

As described on the Challenge Website, entries must include: a completed online application, (a) a 5 page proposal detailing the proposed model/intervention and including the required sections, separated with clear headings, and (b) 10 slide Powerpoint summarizing the intervention, budget, timeline of implementation plan, team member experience, and metrics. Entries of an app or technology should also include a video demo of the app or technology.

Entries must be received during the Entry Period. The Sponsor is not responsible for entries that are late, lost, stolen, misdirected or non-deliverable due to any reason whatsoever, including, and without limitation, online communication malfunction or failure, computer or computer program malfunction or failure or human error that may occur in the processing of entries to this Challenge. In the event of a dispute about the identity of any Entrant, an online registration will be declared as if made by the authorized account holder of the e-mail address submitted at time of entry.

All Submissions must comply with the following Content Restrictions:
The Submission must not contain material that violates or infringes another’s rights, including but not limited to, privacy, publicity, copyright, trademark, patent, or intellectual property-or property-related rights. The Submission must not contain footage, images or artwork not created by entrant; The Submission must not contain material that is inappropriate, indecent, obscene hateful, defamatory, slanderous or libelous. The Submission must not contain material that promotes bigotry, racism, hatred or harm against any group or individual or promotes discrimination based on race, gender, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age. The Submission must not contain material that is unlawful, in violation of or contrary to the laws or regulations in any jurisdiction where Submission is created.

By entering, each Applicant represents and warrants that (a) the Applicant’s Submission and all components thereof, including all ideas, creative elements and any other materials and information contained in the Submission are wholly original with the Applicant, (b) no person or entity has collaborated with the Applicant in creating the Submission, provided any material or information for inclusion in the Submission, or has any ownership rights in and to the Submission or any component thereof (note: an Applicant that is a Team warrants and represents that no person who is not a Team member collaborated with the Applicant, provided any material or information, or has any ownership rights in and to the Submission), (c) Applicant has the exclusive, unconditional right and authority to submit the Submission and to grant the rights set forth herein, and (d) the Applicant’s Submission complies with these Official Rules in full. Submissions must not contain any material that Sponsors, in their sole discretion, deem inappropriate for public viewing and/or determine is contrary to its mission or reputation. Sponsors reserve the right in their individual discretion to disqualify and/or not accept any Submission that Sponsors determine does not or is likely not to comply with these guidelines, to make such changes to any Submission as are necessary to make it compliant, or to require the Applicant to do so.

7. Judging:
The judging of the Competition will proceed as follows:

A panel of judges comprised of Sponsor’s and industry leaders and consultants will review all Submissions to identify those that are complete and otherwise appear preliminarily to satisfy the entry requirements set forth herein. Submissions that appear preliminarily to be complete and to satisfy the entry requirements will be called qualified (“Qualified Entrant”). A jury of judges comprised both of Sponsors’ designees and industry leaders selected by Sponsors will score all qualified submissions based on the following Judging Criteria:

  • Creativity: uniqueness and innovation in approach to improving health outcomes and/or reducing costs.
  • Impact: Ability of the intervention to improve health outcomes of vulnerable populations and reduce costs within a year’s time.
  • Feasibility of Implementation: Intervention considers provider and clinic workflow and describes a realistic path to an efficient implementation.
  • Sustainability: The potential for sustainability and scalability of the intervention.

The judging criteria are to be applied in the sole discretion of the Judges. By participating in the Challenge, each Entrant into the Challenge acknowledges and agrees to: (a) demonstrate the functionality of its application in a live format and/or allow the Judges, Sponsor, and/or Administrator to physically test the functionality of the application, in each instance if requested by the Judges, Sponsor, and or Administrator, and (b) be bound by and not challenge the final decision of the Judges.

8. Winner Notification and Verification for the Competition:
Attempts to notify potential winners will be made using the contact information provided on the winner's Official Entry Form. The Sponsor and the Administrator are not responsible for e-mail or other communication problems of any kind. If, despite reasonable efforts, a potential winner does not respond within five days of the first notification attempt (or a shorter time as exigencies may require), or if the Award or Award notification is returned as unclaimed or undeliverable to such potential winner, such potential winner will forfeit the Award and an alternate winner may be selected. If any potential Award winner is found to be ineligible, or the Entrant in question has not complied with these Rules or declines the applicable Award for any reason prior to award, such potential Award winner will be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected.

9. Funding:
(a) General Terms and Conditions: All income taxes and any other applicable taxes on each Award are the sole responsibility of the winning applicant. An IRS form 1099 will be issued, if required by law. Awards consist only of items expressly specified herein. Any costs or expenses associated with the acceptance or use of any Award (including, without limitation, additional transportation, meals, gratuities and incidentals) are the responsibility of the winning applicant. No substitution, cash redemption or transfer of right to receive any Award will be allowed, except at sole discretion of Sponsors. Sponsors reserve the right to substitute an alternate Award.
(b) The winning projects will be rewarded and Awards are to be determined. (c) Award Distribution: A gift account will be established at the Rutgers University Foundation in which the $50,000 will be deposited for the purpose of supporting the implementation of the selected winning project. Allowable uses of the funding will be in accordance with a fund agreement outlining spending criteria and naming authorized approvers. Funds in general can be used for salaries, meetings, equipment, travel and other expenses associated with implementing the project and which have been approved by the account authorizer. Income taxes on funding used for salaries is the sole responsibility of the recipient and an IRS Form 1099 will be issued, if required by law.

10. Grant of Rights:
By entering, each Team grants to Sponsors, Adminstrator and their designees the irrevocable, royalty-free right to publish, disseminate and use the name, likeness and biographical information of each member of said Team without further notice or consideration, in perpetuity, throughout the world, in all media and formats now known or hereafter invented, in connection with the execution and promotion of the Competition and the promotion of Sponsors and its activities.

In addition, by entering, each Applicant grants to Sponsors and their designees a nonexclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license to reproduce, exploit, adapt, use and display worldwide, in perpetuity, throughout the world, in all media and formats now known or hereafter invented, information about the Submission and the Project and all components thereof, including without limitation posting information about the Submission and/or the Project on the Site (or such other Sponsor designated on-line environment), in connection with the execution and promotion of the Competition and the promotion of Sponsors and their activities, without further notice or compensation.

Each Team grants to Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey and their designees, all right, title and interest to any inventions or discoveries ( “intellectual property”) developed during the course of the Healthcare Competition.

11. Disputes:
These Terms and Conditions shall be governed by and interpreted under the laws of the State of –New Jersey without regard to conflicts of laws provisions. Applicant hereby agrees that any and all disputes claims, causes of action or controversies arising out of or in connection with the Competition or these Terms and Conditions shall be resolved individually, and without resort to class action, exclusively by a state or federal court located in New Jersey. By entering, each Applicant irrevocably waives any right to seek and/or obtain rescission and/or equitable and/or injunctive relief.

12. Representations & Warranties:
Applicant represents and warrants that they: (a) have the right to make a Submission as contemplated hereunder without the need of any consent of any third party; (b) Will abide by these Terms and Conditions and all applicable laws and regulations; (; and (c) Applicant is under no obligation or disability, created by law or otherwise, which would in any manner or to any extent prevent or restrict making a Submission or becoming a Winner.

13. Indemnity:
By submitting an entry, each Applicant (including each Team member) agrees to indemnify, hold harmless and defend sponsors, administrator, affiliates, subsidiaries, successors and assigns, and each of their trustees, officers, employees and agents (all of the foregoing, the “Sponsor Parties”), from and against the full amount of all claims, liabilities, actions, suits, proceedings, assessments, judgments, decrees, losses, fees, damages, settlement funds, and associated costs and expenses including attorney’s fees arising from or in connection with the Applicant’s participation, any use by Sponsors Parties of the Applicant’s Submission and/or the exercise by Sponsors of any rights granted to it herein, including without limitation claims based on rights of privacy, rights of publicity, false light, defamation, copyright, patent and/or trademark infringement relating to the Applicant’s Submission. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, in the event of any claim by a third party affecting or relating to the Submission, Sponsors shall have, in addition to any other rights available to it, at law or in equity, the right to immediately revoke any award. Sponsor Parties include The Nicholson Foundation and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey14 and Health 2.0 LLC (the “Administrator”). DISCLAIMER:
NOTWITHSTANDING ANYTHING TO THE CONTRARY, IN NO EVENT WILL ANY OF THE SPONSOR PARTIES, INCLUDING THE ADMINISTRATOR, BE LIABLE TO APPLICANT OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, LOSS OF REVENUES, LOST PROFITS, LOST CAPITAL OR OVERHEAD, WHETHER BASED ON BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) OR OTHERWISE, WHETHER OR NOT SPONSOR PARTIES HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

15. Release of Claims:
By submitting an entry, each Applicant (including each Team member) releases each of the Sponsor Parties from and against the full amount of all claims, liabilities, actions, suits, proceedings, assessments, judgments, decrees, losses, fees, damages, settlement funds, and associated costs and expenses including attorney’s fees arising from or in connection with the Applicant’s participation in this competition, any use by Sponsors of the Applicant’s Submission and/or the exercise by Sponsors of any rights granted to it herein, including without limitation claims based on rights of privacy, rights of publicity, false light, defamation, copyright, patent and/or trademark infringement relating to the Applicant’s Submission and claims for injury, loss or damage of any kind resulting from the Applicant’s participation in this competition or acceptance or use of any award.

16. Limitation on Exploitation of Materials:
Each Applicant acknowledges that each of the Sponsor Parties may have engaged and continue to engage in the development, production, acquisition and dissemination of materials that may be similar or identical to the Applicant’s Project or Submission. The Sponsor Parties may use information about the Applicant’s Project or Submission in whole or in part, without any payment or other obligation whatsoever to the Applicant, if the Applicant’s Project or Submission (a) is not unique, novel, original, and concrete so as to be entitled to protection under applicable laws, (b) has been made public by anyone at the time of its submission to Sponsors or otherwise is in the public domain, (c) would be freely usable by a third person if it had not been accepted as a Submission, or (d) is similar or identical to, or contains significant elements encompassed in, an idea, concept or material that has been independently created by either Sponsor or any third party. Acceptance by Sponsors of a Submission is not an admission by Sponsors of the novelty or originality of the Submission.

17. General Terms:
All federal, state and local laws and regulations apply. Sponsors and Administrator reserve the right at their sole discretion to disqualify any individual who violates these Terms and Conditions, tampers with the entry process and/or acts in any way that would, in any way, discredit or harm the reputation of Sponsors, and/or to cancel, modify or suspend this competition should entrant fraud or misconduct or other causes beyond the control of Sponsors corrupt the administration, integrity, security or proper operation of the competition. Without limitation of the foregoing, Sponsors and Administrator reserve the right to terminate, modify or suspend this competition due to any of the following reasons: act of God; unavoidable accident; epidemic; fire; blackout; act of public enemy; war, riot or civil commotion; enactment, rule, order or act of government or governmental instrumentality or tribunal; strike, lockout or other labor dispute; inclement weather; failure of technical facilities; failure of essential production, or technical personnel to appear or be available; or other cause beyond its control. Sponsors are not responsible for lost, late, illegible, incomplete, damaged, mutilated, misdirected, mis-delivered, or delayed entries, or for technical or human errors or failures of any kind in connection with the submission, transmission, processing or judging of entries, including without limitation any malfunctions or failures of computer hardware, computer software, networks or telephone equipment or any technical problems or traffic congestion on the Internet or at any website or any combination thereof. Caution: Any attempt by an entrant to deliberately damage any Web site or undermine the legitimate operation of the competition is a violation of criminal and civil laws and should such an attempt be made, Sponsors reserve the right to seek damages from any such entrant to the fullest extent of the law. Sponsors are not responsible for any typographical or other error in the printing of the offer, administration of the competition, or in the announcement of the award.

These Terms and Conditions set forth the entire agreement and understanding between Sponsors Parties and Applicant concerning the subject matter hereof and merges and supersedes all prior discussions, agreements and understandings of any kind between them. Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, Sponsors and Administrator reserve the right, in their sole discretion, at any future time to terminate, modify or suspend the competition for any reason, in Sponsor’s sole discretion. All notices shall be in writing and shall be delivered to Applicant in accordance with instructions contained herein. Applicant shall be deemed an independent contractor and nothing contained herein shall constitute this arrangement to be employment, a joint venture, or a partnership. Sponsor’s failure to enforce any Terms of these Terms and Conditions shall not constitute a waiver of any provision contained herein. The titles of Sections of these Terms and Conditions are for convenience only and shall not be given any legal effect. The word “including” is used in these Terms and Conditions to mean “including but not limited to.”